The simple past is the basic form of past tense in English. Worksheets: past perfect simple and past perfect continuous. Join ESL-Library today! For Fun. Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Simple 1 Past Simple 2 Past Simple 3 Past Simple: Negatives Past Time Words Phrasal Verbs with 'Get' Phrasal Verbs with 'Take' Phrasal Verbs with 'Up' Place and Movement Plural & Singular Nouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns Possessive: 's / s' Prefix: Re-. Past simple of irregular verbs. Past perfect simple or past perfect continuous? Put each verb in brackets into the past perfect simple or the past perfect continuous. Table of Contents• vii Table of Contents As this book is based on impr oving the learner's grammar, the basis for each unit, except for the introductory and review units, is to fix a recurring grammatical mistake. Use of Past Perfect. The Spanish past perfect is definitely not the easiest tense to use. Underline examples of the past perfect simple, past perfect continuous and past perfect passive. The wind (blew / had blown) away the magazines that I (leave / had left )on the garden table. So it’s my second observed class tomorrow and I’ve prepared the following lesson plan to teach present perfect/past simple to the same group. Self-transcendence in my own experiences could describe:. Past simple We use the past simple to talk about completed actions in the past. The past perfect is used in the part of the sentence that explains the condition (the if-clause). There are 10 pages of practice with the past perfect and the past perfect progressive, as well as comparisons of the past perfect vs. This quiz is about the usage of tenses, particularly past perfect tense. Online exercises: Past perfect tense Learn the difference between the simple and continuous. the past perfect progressive and the past perfect vs. I was going (go) to work when my car broke down (break down). Eslflow's Guide for teaching past continuous, perfect and modal with activities & lesson plans. BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Present perfect and past simple Today we’re talking about the present perfect and the past simple tenses. 1) Note: We use the progressive form to say "how long" something has been happening and the simple form to say how much/how many we have done. 00 pm we were visiting our grandparents. Answer the questions. Despite my nerves it went pretty well but my tutor's main criticism was that it was too teacher centred and not learner-led enough. Past Perfect and Past Simple Choose the past perfect, or the past simple: Microsoft Word - past perfect or past simple. The present perfect is often used with already and yet. Two PDF verb tenses worksheets to download. We can use several tenses and forms to talk about the past, but the past simple tense is the one we use most often. We use the past perfect simple to talk about what happened before a point in the past. Past perfect passive PDF It had been finished. or Gumroad (PDF / Word / Ebook. Future Simple My brother will know the answer. United have won the Cup, so it’s theirs now. I had studied. non-action verbs) Simple past vs. Go to this sample lesson from Grammar Practice Worksheets to get a feel for the lessons in this section. past simple, past continuous and past perfect 1. / He has finished his homework. This tense is formed with the modal "HAD" plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): "I had been working in the garden all morning. Consult conjugation models like have, be, go, take and see their translation and definition. If the action after "before" is a new action, use Simple Past. I lost my car keys. This action started and ended before the second action occurred. This is also the case for many irregular verbs: • He sold (simple past) his car last week. Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive. For regular verbs, the past participle is the same as the simple past: • I worked (simple past) all day yesterday. Click on the links below to learn and practice. Make investments a bit more on premium quality toys and games so you can rest assured they are entirely harmless. They become especially confusing when you have to identify which tense to use and which one is being used. All the tickets had been sold before the concert began. We use this tense when we have two finished actions that happened in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one happened first. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Grade 4 Simple Past Tense. Define past perfect tense. pdf 25KB: I3: Past Simple v. The Past Simple tells us about the past, a time which is finished. No sign-up required. Perfect Tenses. Past Simple Tense: I lived in Granada when I was young. Present perfect. Test yourself with our free English language quiz about 'Past Simple or Past Perfect?'. The verb that is in the past perfect Is always the action that happened first. 6) Which sentences/questions are in the Simple Past? a) He has read a book. You look hungry; I _____ (make) you a sandwich. Click here for the full info, rules, examples and exercises on the simple past and how to use it. Unfortunately, there is no context for that sentence. If the action after "before" is a new action, use Simple Past. Past Perfect - Negative Complete the sentences below using the negative form of past perfect. Il “past simple”, per i verbi regolari, si forma aggiungendo il suffisso “-ed” alla forma base del verbo, mentre per quelli irregolari occorre vedere la seconda flessione del paradigma di un verbo. he tree was exactly what they wanted. I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man. Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. (This is an even taking place at the time of the story - so past simple, because my son hadn't filled it up the day before. Present Perfect Simple - putting the verbs into the past simple or the present perfect simple: iexe4. Fairytale dominoes This is a game from Intermediate Communication Games that can easily be played without access to the book. (Present Perfect passive) This homework needs to be done tonight. 2 Comments. differenze tra past simple present perfect; differenze tra past simple e past. 13 Past continuous: affirmative, negative, questions, short answers (2) Vocabulario clave at (eight) o’clock a las (ocho) boyfriend novio chat charlar dance bailar feel well sentirse bien flute flauta French francés friend(s) amigo/a(s) guitar guitarra have dinner cenar laugh reírse. Form of the past perfect simple:. 29-30 PRESENT PERFECT VS PAST SIMPLE: How To Teach Past Simple VS Present Perfect 31 PAST SIMPLE: How to Teach Past Simple – Regular/Irregular Verbs 32 PAST SIMPLE: How to Teach the Past Simple Tense – Verb to Be 33 PAST SIMPLE: Where Did He Go? How to Teach Question-Making in Past Tense 34 USED TO & WOULD: How to Teach Used To and Would. The past perfect tense describes events or situations that precede another point in the past that has been established through the the present perfect or the simple past. There are several past tenses in the English language. Present Perfect Tense I have seen the new Harry Potter movie. International Herald Tribune website Toyota has seta goal to capture 15 percent of the global car market in the next decade, and has spentheavily on new factories in the United States, China and elsewhere. I have found it both very effective and easy to prepare. Forming the Present Perfect. When I WAS WALKING (WALK) through Bologna I THOUGHT/WAS THINKING (THINK) about the wonderful times I HAD SPENT (SPEND) there as a student. Past perfect simple or past perfect continuous? Put each verb in brackets into the past perfect simple or the past perfect continuous. When I went outside this morning the ground was wet. I had already talked to him twice that day when he told me the news. All downloads are in PDF Format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. And remember that we only need past perfect if the second event happened before the first one. Used by over 10,000 museums, PastPerfect is affordable, comprehensive, and easy-to-use. Online exercises Comparison of tenses, Comparison of tenses questions and Comparison of tenses negative sentences. *on Sunday *Adverbs of frequency Always Sometimes Often Usually Never Rarely seldom Hardly … *Once, twice (a day, week. Most often, the reason to write a verb in the past perfect tense is to show that it happened before other actions in the same sentence that are described by verbs in the simple past tense. Examples Simple Tenses Present. Średni wynik: 64,31 %. Another way to think about the simple past is that it is a finished action in the past that does not affect what happens next. Present perfect worksheet-> answers; Present perfect - worksheet; Worksheet test -> answers; Present perfect - pdf exercises; Past simple - present perfect; Worksheets pdf - print; Grammar worksheets - handouts; Present perfect continuous. Mehr zum Thema Simple Past – Past Perfect Simple findest du auch auf unserer neuen Seite zum Englisch-Lernen Lingolia. The patient had died before the doctor arrived. Future perfect progressive: I will have been learning. Advertisements. He told me he had been to London. Aquí os muestro dos ejemplos para que vosotros mismos averigüéis en qué se diferencian: ej: After she had finished her sandwich, she brushed her teeth. Present Perfect 1. Sie erzählen dir ihre "Locked-Out-Story". Grammar videos: Present perfect: simple and continuous – exercises 1. We use the present perfect (have been / have had / have played etc. Simple Past & Past Perfect. Some exceptions!. There are various utilised taxi vehicles which might be through good shape as well as affordable. That he acts in real-time, that he is always there even if we are not always there for Him. ) *Timetables (at 3) * Now * Right now *At the Moment *At. What characteristics and interests did Elyse and Paula have in common? 3. We ate out yesterday. Jane (prepare) a beautiful candlelight dinner. The Past Tense - Past Perfect There are three aspects of the present tense: = action 1) Simple past 2) Past progressive 3) Past perfect (simple and progressive) _____ The past perfect (simple) tense is used to describe an action that has been completed before another past action. An action that STARTED in the past AND CONTINUES to the present = present perfect -- e. past perfect tense synonyms, past perfect tense pronunciation, past perfect tense translation, English dictionary definition of past perfect tense. Simple Present vs. (muñecas) 5. Various exercises to practise the past perfect. (Use past perfect to contrast earlier and later past; when = interruption of new activity) The bank robber took the gun, threw it in the bushes and drove away. Self-transcendence in my own experiences could describe:. Learn the difference between Past Simple and Present Perfect Tense with useful grammar rules and examples. The present perfect is often used with already and yet. A collection of ESL, EFL downloadable, printable worksheets, practice exercises and activities to teach about past, perfect, and, past, simple, past perfect. So kannst auch du bald auf Englisch von Erlebnissen berichten und sicher mit den Zeitformen Simple Past und Past Perfect umgehen. form and then students have to switch to the simple past. There are various utilised taxi vehicles which might be through good shape as well as affordable. Claire Dupont 12 Rue Charles de Gaulle Paris. Complete the sentences with an appropriate future form. The two students should then compete to write a complete sentence with the past simple form of that verb - 'I drove to a park. Agnes Svalberg combines two descriptions saying that “the Present Perfect relates to an undefined time and there is a reverse time connection (Present Perfect <--- Present) (A. In many cases a complete sentence is written in two parts with two different tenses: The past perfect simple, to refer to the action that happened first or earlier; The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later. Test rozwiązano 31571 razy. Past or Past Perfect Tense - Simple T. PRESENT PERFECT or PAST SIMPLE? (1) Exercise 1. PRESENT PERFECT or PAST SIMPLE? (1) Exercise 1. while + past continuous Josephine saw Pat while she was walking home. Eslflow's Guide for teaching past continuous, perfect and modal with activities & lesson plans. Exercise 2 - Past perfect simple and continuous. Past Simple ESL Grammar Game - Jeopardy Betting Game. t wasn't too tall or too short. As an English learnr, I was also taught to use both tenses in similar sentences. These are the books for those you who looking for to read the Far From Perfect Perfect Indiana Book 1, try to read or download Pdf/ePub books and some of authors may have disable the live reading. Actions in present perfect take place in an unfinished period of time or there is no specific time. In both sentences, the first action must be either in the simple past or the past perfect if the second action is in the simple past: that's the sequence of tenses rule. First, because of the instructions - Fill in the blanks with the past perfect or the past perfect continuous form of the verbs in parentheses. I (fall down) when I (clean) the windows. Reply Delete. - At last! I _____ (solve) the problem. The patient had died before the doctor arrived. Past perfect simple, past perfect continuous ' When the three bears got home they realised someone had used their things'. It is also used to describe an action that happened in the. Advertisements. ( had lived, had sung …). Activity: Join the sentences. com The best free resources to learn and teach English Past Simple vs. were playing 4. Past simple of irregular verbs. So my car ran out of petrol. Bean had taken off his shoe before he smashed the pepper. We often use a past expression (last week, yesterday, when I was a child, etc. Past Simple vs Present Perfect. Questões resolvidas de Passado perfeito | Past perfect (Inglês) A man stepped onto the overnight train and told the conductor, “I need you to wake me up in Philadelphia. This is a free multiple-choice quiz that you can do online or print out. The past perfect tense is used to show past actions. Both the simple past and the present perfect tenses are used to talk about finished actions or situations. I (fall down) when I (clean) the windows. t wasn't too tall or too short. (Before doing the exercises you may want to read the lesson on the past perfect simple and continuous) Write the past participle of the following irregular verbs. Past perfect simple / continuous. (but I didn't know you were here so I didn't call you!) If I had had enough money, I would have bought you a better present. Comparison of tenses simple past or past perfect with free online exercises, passive rules and passive voice examples. Simple Past Short description: The students are supposed to learn about the difference between simple present and simple past. ¡Descárgatelo en formato PDF poniendo tu correo electrónico! {{ downloadEmailSaved }} Tu correo electrónico. As the passage describes completed events, it uses simple past tense appropriately in context. FORM [had + past participle] Examples: You had studied English before you moved to New York. 6 Continuation from Past to Present EXAMPLES EXPLANATION Larry Page has been interested in computers for many years. Read the conversation and answer the questions below. It had been rain ing. การใช้ Past Simple และ Past Perfect Simple (ตอนที่ 1) เพื่อนๆ บางคนคงเคยมีปัญหาเกี่ยวกับการใช้ Past Simple และ Past Perfect Simple จนอาจเกิดความสับสนว่า tense. Gramática da Língua Inglesa Past Simple v. Comparison simple past or past perfect. Definition: The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. How would using past perfect in a 'by the time' clause affect the meaning differently from using the common formula (past simple in the 'by the time clause' plus past perfect in the main clause). Past Simple ESL Grammar Game - Jeopardy Betting Game. Online exercise to revise the Present Perfect and Past Perfect tenses of verbs in English, for learners of English. … We can use both tenses, Past Simple and Past Continuous, in the same sentence, and here we will find that something suddenly happens when an activity is in process: …. Print the lesson. (Second action). The Receptive Skills:The learners will listen to some listening activities that would include the Past Simple Tense or the Past Simple and the Present Perfect together. Il present simple si usa: Per esprimere abitudini, azioni generalmente valide, azioni ripetute o situazioni immutevoli, emozioni e desideri: I smoke (abitudine); I work in London (situazione immutevole); London is a large city (dichiarazione generalmente valida) Per dare istruzioni o direzioni: You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left. Tenses in a table learning past present past simple continuous perfect Learning English tenses. Here you can practise and improve your English in a different way. Both actions happened in the past so we use the past simple tense. Two Years Living up a Tree Grammar Practice: Past Perfect Simple & Continuous 1: Read the sentences from the BBC World Service podcast. A: I lost my keys and strong>had to get in through a window. Yesterday, Mandy (go) to a café after work. ( had lived, had sung …). I (study) for five hours and then I (go) to sit the exam. It looks back from a point in the past to further in the past. I was buying stock yesterday with my mom’s credit card, when she walked in the room and saw! (Past Continuous). 29-30 PRESENT PERFECT VS PAST SIMPLE: How To Teach Past Simple VS Present Perfect 31 PAST SIMPLE: How to Teach Past Simple – Regular/Irregular Verbs 32 PAST SIMPLE: How to Teach the Past Simple Tense – Verb to Be 33 PAST SIMPLE: Where Did He Go? How to Teach Question-Making in Past Tense 34 USED TO & WOULD: How to Teach Used To and Would. Online exercise to revise the Present Perfect and Past Perfect tenses of verbs in English, for learners of English. Past Perfect Tense is used to express two types of actions which occurred or completed in the past. This present perfect reading comprehension exercise is a story about two people doing job interviews. - My aunt flew to Paris last year. It is usually used to express an action which occurred a long time ago in past. Present Perfect a Past Simple:. Są tutaj czasy angielskie, czasowniki modalne i nieregularne, struktury gramatyczne, ich budowa i zastosowanie, testy i ćwiczenia. I lost my car keys. Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in past simple or present perfect. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the past simple or past continuous. Can you use simple past and present perfect tenses correctly. Answers are at the bottom of the page. indd 36 10/31/14 5:55 PM. Frank and Helena / Cultura / Getty Images You'll need to review the past simple and present perfect carefully. This is a free multiple-choice quiz that you can do online or print out. What is the nature versus nurture debate? C Notice. have worked 6. Simple Present, Simple Past and Present Perfect Tenses This is a list of Irregular Verbs. Some of the most confusing tenses in the English language are the present perfect and past perfect. Despite my nerves it went pretty well but my tutor’s main criticism was that it was too teacher centred and not learner-led enough. Past Simple / Past Continuous / Past Perfect Simple - Answers A 1. Click on the thumbnail preview to view the full worksheet which you can then print. I was buying stock yesterday with my mom’s credit card, when she walked in the room and saw! (Past Continuous). United have won the Cup, so it’s theirs now. You are supposed to complete with past simple or past perfect but with no previous information about each sentence. You will then learn the form, in particular, the affirmative, negative and. That he acts in real-time, that he is always there even if we are not always there for Him. As you’ll see shortly, the ‘phrase triggers’ below establish a defined start and end for an event, thus naturally triggering the use of the Spanish past simple. Present Perfect or Past Simple. Welcome to my blog. Three Simple Words Kingston Ale House. We can also use since to talk about past periods, but we only use it with Past Perfect. It's a one-page handout about the activities happened on a summer holiday in Nice in France. Here are the most common narrative tenses and how they are used: 1. Como tal, la forma corta "I'd" puede tener dos significados diferent. Advertisements. Choose the present perfect or. The past perfect is used in the part of the sentence that explains the condition (the if-clause). Grammar videos: Present perfect: simple and continuous – exercises 1. Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Choose the past perfect, or the past perfect continuous Microsoft Word - past perfect or past perfect continuous. Tak samo jest z przykładem 9 (tym z cleaning lady). PAST or PAST PERFECT (Simple and progressive) - Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb ! 1. - At last! I _____ (solve) the problem. Present Perfect Progressive (Ex. ) which makes the use of the Past Simple obligatory. Use of Past Perfect. A collection of ESL, EFL downloadable, printable worksheets, practice exercises and activities to teach about past, perfect, and, past, simple, past perfect. action taking place before a certain time in the past. Agnes Svalberg combines two descriptions saying that “the Present Perfect relates to an undefined time and there is a reverse time connection (Present Perfect <--- Present) (A. Fill the gaps with either the present perfect or the past simple. *on Sunday *Adverbs of frequency Always Sometimes Often Usually Never Rarely seldom Hardly … *Once, twice (a day, week. 00 pm we were visiting our grandparents. They had been sent. Before the budget cuts, the students had been participating in many extracurricular activities. Past Simple or Continuous. Past Perfect 1 In this short exercise, you will practise recognizing the correct form of the past perfect tense. The present perfect tense is a present tense and as such it cannot used with definite past time expressions like yesterday. EnglishLessons4U - Learn English with Ronnie! [engVid] 2,792,423 views. Past simple or Past perfect exercises PDF (1/2) Click here to download this exercise in PDF. A paid subscription to ESL Library gives you access to all of our 1,000+ lessons and 3,000+ flashcards. Simple Past or Past Continuous - A Dialog Fill in the blanks with the simple past or past continuous form of the verbs. Nach dem Lösen aller Aufgaben erfährst du, wie gut du diesen Test gemeistert hast. The Spanish past perfect is definitely not the easiest tense to use. They _____(go) somewhere else. Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. - Escribe el verbo entre paréntesis en "past perfect" o "past simple" según corresponda: {ejercicio:completar} My father it (To buy) Ann passed her exam bec. Used by over 10,000 museums, PastPerfect is affordable, comprehensive, and easy-to-use. past simple, past continuous and past perfect 1. Answer the questions. Übungsblatt 2: Simple past - present perfect Übung 1 Entscheiden Sie, welche Verbzeit man bei den folgenden Signalwörtern benutzen muss: simple past (SP) oder present perfect (PP)? a) the day before yesterday g) this morning b) 45 minutes ago h) not yet c) since 3 o'clock i) in 1999 d) ever j) since last Christmas. Simple Past verwenden wir, wenn wir (der Reihe nach) erzählen, was in der Vergangenheit passierte. ) Here are some sentences in the present perfect. Le past perfect simple : lien entre deux moments du passé Les faits décrits à l'aide du past perfect sont toujours vus par rapport à un autre moment du passé. Present perfect progressive: I have been learning. Past perfect + just 'Just' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e. past simple, past continuous and past perfect 1. e) I'm listening to music. Past form or have -en? Past Simple vs Present Perfect. John Lennon / Jealous Guy Oasis / Champagne Supernova Aerosmith / Cryin’ Songs for teaching present perfect. Como tal, la forma corta "I'd" puede tener dos significados diferent. In fact, the structure of the. Have you ever been to Japan? No, I've never been to Japan. Free Practice Tests for learners of English. As an English learnr, I was also taught to use both tenses in similar sentences. A simple exercise to manipulate and focus on form involves joining two sentences together. How this Survey Activity Works. The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. Gramática da Língua Inglesa Past Simple v. The wind (blew / had blown) away the magazines that I (leave / had left )on the garden table. 3 Present Perfect and Simple Past 51113_GE3_U02_030-061_rev09. International Herald Tribune website Toyota has seta goal to capture 15 percent of the global car market in the next decade, and has spentheavily on new factories in the United States, China and elsewhere. Learn how to make affirmative, negative sentences and question with the Past Perfect using this simple guide. Present Perfect. Past Continuous Tense 1 Past Continuous Exercises 2 Simple Past vs Past Continuous Simple Past vs. We use the past perfect tense for the action which took place first and the simple past tense for the action which takes place next. = Quand je suis sorti ce matin le sol était mouillé. We can use the past perfect tense (had + past participle) to do this. Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Exercises Past Perfect (I had gone) and Past Perfect Continuous (I had been going) exercise 1: fill in the correct verb form of the past perfect or present perfect continuous; exercise 2: fill in the correct verb form of the past perfect or present perfect continuous (plus explanation). If the action after "before" is a new action, use Simple Past. For Rule 1 example - as per chart the form of 'asane' for simple past is 'hoto'. This is also the case for many irregular verbs: • He sold (simple past) his car last week. His original words were: ''I have been to London. Here’s the survey I use in my own classes: Present Perfect and Simple Past Survey Activity. Read the text about a holiday in Spain. PDF grammar rules: English tenses PDF grammar rules with examples on all English tenses. Feleletválasztós nyomkodós teszt az egyszerű múlt és az egyszerű befejezett jelen gyakorlására. ) I called her twice yesterday. The patient had died before the doctor arrived. The baby was sleeping when the telephone rang. Complete the following sentences using a simple past or past perfect tense form. Posted by Manjusha. This tense is also known as Pluperfect. Look at the worksheet and the description and decide which one to print. 1 When the student revolution came, I there for 6 months. The best option could possibly be choosing a put to use shuttle bus. Present Perfect vs Past Simple. Then click on the answer button to see the correct answers. Past Simple Tense: I lived in Granada when I was young. The answer key is included. Susanne Hackmack Reichenbach's Theory of Tense and it's Application to English Tense and the English tenses The term 'tense' can be defined as a secondary grammatical category which serves to locate an. Present perfect progressive: I have been learning. Past simple or past perfect - English online grammar exercise. German has six tenses: present, perfect, past, past perfect, future and future perfect. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Grade 4 Simple Past Tense. FORM [had + past participle] Examples: You had studied English before you moved to New York. This is because you'll often have to use the past perfect with other tenses such as the past simple or past imperfect. Type the present perfect or the past simple tense of the verbs in the boxes below. indd 36 10/31/14 5:55 PM. Past Continuous is used to describe action that were in progress (still happening - not finished) at a certain time in the past. Future Continuous Exercises and Practice. 1 I (buy) a new house last year, but I (not sell) my old house yet, so at the moment I have two houses. Exercises: Simple past and Past perfect II. Both the simple past and the present perfect are used to talk about finished actions and situations. is discovered – Wrong – the verb 'to be' should be in the past tense. / We have been to the new shopping mall. The activities below are for intermediate level students and higher. Before dan after bisa didahului kalimat past perfect tense atau simple past tense. Consult conjugation models like have, be, go, take and see their translation and definition. Now, I did say that the examples below are Spanish phrases but some of the options are just single words. Can be played one to one or in groups. A: I lost my keys and strong>had to get in through a window. The Past Tense – Past Perfect There are three aspects of the present tense: = action 1) Simple past 2) Past progressive 3) Past perfect (simple and progressive) _____ The past perfect (simple) tense is used to describe an action that has been completed before another past action. This is a worksheet for teaching or revising the differences between the past simple and the past perfect tense. Both past tense and past perfect tense take place in the past. The past form of the verb is the same for all persons and things regardless of whether they are singular or plural. Se usa el presente perfecto para acciones que ocurrieron en un tiempo no concreto antes de ahora. Como tal, la forma corta "I'd" puede tener dos significados diferent.